Soviet Security in Lithuania in 1940-1991
In 1940 Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union and for 50 years it has lost is autonomy. One of the most relevant supports of the Soviet occupational regime in Lithuania was the repressive structures. They held a special position in the USSR as well as in Lithuania. Though formally they belonged to the administrative apparatus of the Lithuanian SSR, but actually they were responsible to the higher party and repressive institutions of the USSR. The LSSR NKVD, NKGB which started operating in Lithuania were the divisions of the repressive structures of the central USSR and the direct executors of their politics. They were one of the most important supports of the occupational regime in Lithuania. During the 1940-1991 it has survived many institutional transformations. It was called NKVD, NKGB, MGB and MVD, KGB. The following objectives were raised to the LSSR NKVD, which was established in 1940 according to the particular situation of Lithuania (an independent country until the 1940, forced to join the USSR, had a boarder with Germany) and the objectives of the Stalin’s internal politics: to ensure that the conditions in Lithuania were appropriate to conduct sovietisation and integration to the USSR, remove the anti-Soviet elements, liquidate the counter-revolutionary elements and organisations, to stop the development of subversive activities of the anti-Soviet elements (expose and destroy any underground organisations, their members), ensure the security of the boarders with Germany. They were completely under authority of and dependant on the central authority in Moscow. Knowingly, non-locals were assigned to hold the managerial posts. Such politics was supposed to ensure their dependence from Moscow even more. As the war began, a part of the repressive apparatus was evacuated to various locations of the USSR where they continued to operate. The LSSR NKVD group under the USSR NKVD gathered a reserve of cadres and prepared it for the operational work, organised intelligence, terrorist and diverse work in the German occupied Lithuania. The repressive structures were restored once the Soviet occupants returned to Lithuania in 1944. In 1944-1947 the NKVD-MVD (Ministry of Interior) was a more powerful and influential repressive structure, because the internal army was under its authority and it was responsible for fighting against the partisan movement and the execution of mass repressions. After 1947, the centre of power and influence was transferred to MGB, because it took over the interior armed forces, militia (1949-1953), People's Defense Platoons, agents-hit squads and etc. it becomes the main institution fighting against the partisans. It has also carried out the functions of intelligence, counter-intelligence and ideological counter-intelligence.
On the 7th of April, 1954 on the basis of the Lithuanian SSR MVD a State Security Committee under the Council of Ministers of Lithuanian SSR was established. LSSR KGB consisted of administrative and operational divisions. The changes and functions, the priorities of KGB structures were influenced by the current events of internal and international politics, changes in the higher leader positions of USSR, party directives, meetings of All-Union KGB management. The main functions of the Lithuanian SSR KGB, determined by the political objectives of the party, were foreign intelligence and counter-intelligence, i.e. neutralisation of the activities of the foreign special services in the country, and fighting against the ideological counter-intelligence, i.e. with the anti-Soviet manifestations within the community. Divisions carrying out these activities were of utmost importance, and others operated as supporting divisions. Linear distribution of functions was typical to the Soviet security, according to which certain KGB divisions operated. It continued the work of the precursors in the occupied Lithuania, in order to ensure the control of the community, carry out the control of the territory, supervise the economic and transportation sectors, fight against the opponents of the regime inside and outside of the country and carry out other objectives of the political party, carry out the political, industrial-educational espionage in the West. The KGB ended its activities in Lithuania in October of 1991, even though the Supreme Court of the Republic of Lithuania on the 22nd of August of 1991 announced that the activities of the USSR KGB division in Lithuania are terminated. However, it was deemed illegal by law since the 11th of March, 1990, because they have been operating as the repressive structures of the occupational authority in an independent country.