KGB Documents

Repressive actions of the institutions of the soviet occupation regime from 1940

Soviet Union occupied and annexed Baltic countries in 1940. With help of marionette local communist party Moscow implemented changes in political, economy, social, cultural life according soviet model. Struggle with true or supposed enemies was one of the most important targets of occupational regime and repressive institutions. Local communist party and governments was just puppet of Moscow. Already in 1939, one year before occupation, a list of persecuted organization was made in Moscow. Mass arrest of political, economical, military, cultural elite started in July in 1940. They were tortured, killed or send to concentration camp without any trial. It is important to note, that people were arrested or send to jail according the soviet penal code that started to act in Baltic countries just in December in 1940. A first mass deportation of Baltic countries elite was implemented in June in 1941. They were sent to the most severe territories of Siberia and rank of mortality was very high. So the target of this deportation was not punishment but killing people. When the war between Soviet Union and Germany started, soviets, when they were retreating, killed secretly around 1000 political prisoners in Lithuania.

Mass repression continued when soviet returned to Baltic countries in 1944. Punitive action, justify struggle with partisans, were used against unarmed people. They were killed and their homes were burned. One common mass deportation was executed in 1949. In Lithuania there were also mass deportations in 1948, 1951 because of active armed resistance and collectivization. Besides of mass deportation, people were put to prison, send to concentration camps. People from Baltic countries, especially Lithuania, made exceptionally high percentage among other nations in sever regime concentration camps. Although soviet repressions were made on social basic, struggle with kulaks nationalist, however we can make a precondition about national aspects of repressions. A law, justice, protection of innocent people did not work during this period and all the soviet period. A communist party used political, economical measure to suppress resistance to changes in varies spheres of life. Repressive institutions used the most brutal measures against people. It is not just terror, mass repression, but also manipulations, agent activity, secret operation, poisoning, discredit action, psychological pressure, hostage-taking.

A period in 1944-1953 was tragic for Baltic countries. Mass repression suppressed armed resistance, destroyed significant part of political, economical, cultural elite and common people. Because of soviet regime a lot of people ran away to the West in 1944. A splitting of families, a high rank of mortality of children made damage to demographical situation of these countries. Occupational soviet regime with its brutal ideology and communist party, repressive institutions, and puppet local governments were responsible for those crimes against the Baltic countries.

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